72V 20Ah lithium battery pack for electric scooter

Customized 72V 20Ah lithium battery pack for electric scooter and motorcycle

Anode Material:LFP
Application: Electric Bicycles/Scooters, electric vehicles, Electric Wheelchairs
Battery Size:210*153*250mm
Brand Name:AE or OEM
Model Number:AE-72V20AH
Place of Origin:Guangdong China
Rated voltage:72V
Cycle life:≥500 times
Max charge voltage:56V
Cut off voltage:85.6V
Standard charge current:10A
Max continuous discharge:20A
Optimum charge temperature:<45°C

    Customized 72V 20Ah lithium battery pack for electric scooter and motorcycle

    Typical  Capacity


    Minimum Capacity


    Nominal  Voltage


    Charge voltage


    Standard charge current

    4.0A    (0.2ItA)

    Max. charge current

    10.0A   (0.5ItA)

    Standard discharge  current

     4.0A    (0.2ItA)
    Max. discharge  current  10.0A   (0.5ItA)
    Shipping voltage requirements  ≥68.5V

    Working environment temperature

    Work in the battery temperature -10℃~+60℃


    This 72V 20Ah lithium battery pack is widely used for electric scooter, motorcycle,and electric car etc.


    1. What is 3.6V Lithium ion Battery? And included types on the market.

        Lithium-ion battery or Li-ion battery is a type of rechargeable battery composed of cells in which lithium ions move from the negative electrode through an electrolyte to the positive electrode during discharge and back when charging.

        3.6V lithium battery is a battery with nominal voltage of 3.6V and has a capacity ranging from a few hundred to a few thousand milliamperes. It is generally used in various instruments, testing instruments, medical instruments, POS machines, laptops and other products. The rechargeable battery with nominal voltage of 3.6V can reach the level of 3.7V. The early LNCM ternary material, due to technical reasons, has only a nominal voltage of 3.6V, so it has the name of 3.6V lithium battery. However, with the continuous improvement of the formula and the structure, the nominal voltage of the battery has reached 3.7V.

        3.6V rechargeable batteries may refer to nickel-metal hydride batteries. The nominal voltage of nickel-metal hydride batteries is 1.2V, and the voltage after three cells connected in series is 3.6V. Therefore, we should pay attention to distinguish whether 3.6V rechargeable batteries refer to lithium batteries or nickel-metal hydride batteries.

        3.6V lithium ion batteries are widely used in Panasonic products. The anode material is LiNiCoAlO2 containing nickel. Its characteristic is that the charging limit voltage remains unchanged at 4.2V. Although the discharge platform has been slightly reduced by 0.1V, the capacity and cycling life have been increased.

        The most important representative of 3.8V lithium battery is Sanyo, which replaces the positive electrode with NMC ternary material to improve the discharge platform and capacity. Meanwhile, the charging limit voltage also rises to between 4.3V and 4.35V. Common products that use 3.8V batteries include ipad2, iphone 3, iphone5 and HTC one.

        Thanks to BYD promotion of its electric cars, the term "lithium iron phosphate" has gained popularity in China in recent years. Take lithium iron phosphate for example, its anode material voltage standard value is usually between 3V~ 3.3V. At the expense of energy density, it improves the safety and cycling life, which is more suitable for safety performance in electric vehicles.

        From 2012 year, prismatic Lithium ion battery launch market , the representative company have CATL, BYD and CALB, the features of this battery is high capacity of single cell, meet high energy requirement of electric vehicles, and energy storage system. 

     Types of 3.6V lithium battery:

     1) Different appearance: 

      Cylindrical 3.6V lithium ion battery, such as 18650, 18500 and 14650, 21700, 26650 Lithium ion cell. main used for ebike, scooter, laptop;

      Square 3.6V lithium ion battery, such as 103450, 523450, 653450, etc. Main used for phones and scanner; 

      And Prismatic 3.6V lithium ion battery appear in last years. Main used for electric vehicles. 

    2)  Different capacity: 700mAh, 1500mAh, 1800mAh, 2200mAh, 2600mAh, 3000mah, 3200mah, 3400mah, 4800mah, 5000mah, 6000mah. Prismatic Lithium ion battery generally have higher capacity, usual models have 20Ah, 50Ah, 60Ah, 80Ah capacity.  


    2. Which products are more suitable for using 3.6V Lithium ion battery as power and why? 

        Application of 3.6V lithium battery: E-bike,scooter, motorcycle, surfboard,e-boat, etc. These products require high power and light weight and volume. The power industry is creating a demand for Li-ion battery packs to provide power sources. 

        As Li-ion batteries can store large amounts of energy and can be recharged many times, they offer good charging capacity and long lifespans. Lithium-ion batteries have relatively high energy. With a high storage energy density, the current maximum has reached 460Wh/kg, which is about 5-10 times that of lead-acid batteries, and may be higher in the future (specific energy refers to energy per unit weight or unit volume, and specific energy is expressed in Wh/kg or Wh/L). This is the mainly reason why most of manufacturer choose lithium ion material battery for power type devices and tools. 

        Also,lithium ion’s Balancing safety and performance. The inherent instability of lithium metal led to the development of a non-metallic lithium battery using lithium ions. Although slightly lower in energy density, the lithium-ion system is safe when it is properly designed, and used with a built-in associated Battery Management System (BMS) which ensures certain precautions are met when charging and discharging. 


    3, What is the Key Points of making electric vehicles battery pack?

    Battery pack for electric vehicles are characterized by their relatively high power-to-weight ratio, specific energy and energy density; smaller, lighter batteries are desirable because they reduce the weight of the vehicle and therefore improve its performance.


    4, The Battery types history of Electric Vehicles application.

    Even if the lithium-ion battery has established itself today as the preferred choice for the electric car, there are nonetheless alternative technologies, some of which are very old. From the lead-acid battery to the lithium-ion battery read on for an overview of the main battery technologies used in the automotive industry!

    160 years after French physicist Gaston Planté invented the rechargeable lead- battery, technologies to store energy via electro-chemical processes have made immense progress. All the scientific work has had a similar goal: to find the best possible compromise between the battery’s weight, storage capacity, production costs, lifespan, recharging capacity and environmental impact, especially when the time comes for it to be recycled.

    The lead-acid battery

    Invented in 1859, the lead-acid battery is still found in many vehicles, those with both combustion and electric engines. In 1899, the electric vehicle “La Jamais contente” (“The Never Happy”) featuring this technology was in fact the first automobile to exceed 100 km/h, well before combustion engine vehicles.

    These days, lead-acid batteries are no longer used for traction, but to power the electrical circuit of accessories or components specific to combustion engines like the starter. The lead-acid battery only offers a limited capacity despite its significant bulk and weight, but it has the advantage of being both inexpensive and easy to produce and recycle. Used as the main energy storage mechanism for electric cars right up until the 80s, it quickly gave way to other, more efficient technologies.

    The nickel-cadmium battery

    If you used rechargeable batteries in the 90s, then you’re already familiar with nickel-cadmium technology. “Ni-Cd” accumulators had plenty of advantages, with significant storage density and a lifespan of around of 500 to 1,000 charging cycles.

    However, they did suffer from memory effect, a physical phenomenon that sees the battery’s performance decline if it is subject to partial “charge-drain” cycles. Used for the production of electric vehicles in the 90s, Ni-Cd batteries are now prohibited due to the toxicity of cadmium.

    The nickel-metal hydride battery

    With performance similar to Ni-Cd technology, nickel-metal hydride (Ni-MH) accumulators have seen longer success due to their absence of heavy metals. This portable rechargeable battery technology was the most economical at the beginning of the 2000s, which is why it largely dominated the hybrid vehicle market, up until the advent of lithium-ion technology.

    The lithium-ion battery

    Developed in the early 90s, the lithium-ion battery has gradually established itself as the leading technology, both in the world of transportation and in the consumer electronics industry. With a long lifespan, it offers far greater energy density than all competing technologies and is not subject to memory effect.

    However, it does require suitable packaging as well as precise control of the recharging process, generally achieved via a dedicated electronic circuit. Renault uses lithium-ion technology for ZOE and the other electric vehicles in the range. Moreover, the Group is working on incorporating its batteries into a circular economy setup aiming to extend their lifespan as much as possible.

    The solid-state battery

    Scientific research has long been exploring the concept of the solid-state battery, but it’s only in the last 10 years that its progress has made it possible to envisage the technology’s adoption by the automotive industry in the distant future.

    The principle behind it consists of replacing the battery’s liquid electrolyte with a solid material that can take the form of a plastic polymer, compacted inorganic powders or a mixture of the two. In theory, this technology is all positives: it makes it possible to increase energy density and stability while making temperature control easier. Nonetheless, the solid-state is still at the laboratory prototype stage. The lithium-ion battery still has a lot of life left in it!


    5, How to choose Lithium ion Battery or LiFePo4 battery for your electric vehicle project?

    With the rapid rise of the electric vehicle industry, there are more and more electric vehicles in the market, and the styles are more dazzling, and as the source of power - batteries, there are not so many types, and the current mainstream battery types are mainly divided into two types.

    According to the different constituent elements, it can be divided into lithium iron phosphate batteries and NMC lithium batteries. For these two kinds of batteries, different people‘s views are also different, some people like lithium iron phosphate batteries, and some people have a special love for NMC lithium batteries. So what is the difference between these two batteries, and which battery is better? Let‘s find out.

    Lithium iron phosphate battery as the name suggests, the main material is phosphorus, iron, such materials cost is low, so the characteristics of lithium iron phosphate batteries are cheap; and NMC lithium batteries are mainly made of nickel, cobalt and manganese three precious metal materials according to different ratios, the popular 523 NMC lithium batteries, refers to the nickel cobalt manganese three material ratio of 5: 2: 3, the near future will also have 622, 811 and other NMC lithium batteries. Due to the use of metallic elements, the cost of batteries equivalent to lithium iron phosphate is higher, generally about 20% higher.

    One kind of low cost, one kind of battery cost is high, why can NMC lithium batteries still survive in the market? And the ratio of the two accounts for nearly 50% of the market production this year. As the saying goes: to exist is to be reasonable. Its existence must have certain reasons and advantages.

    First, the energy density of NMC lithium batteries is large, and the energy density of mainstream NMC lithium batteries is now about 220Wh/kg, and may reach 300Wh/kg in the future; The lithium iron phosphate battery mainstream at 120Wh/kg, even now BYD‘s blade battery has reached 140Wh/kg, if you want to increase to 300Wh/kg is also very slim. How to understand the above data? Simply and intuitively speaking, it is the same heavy battery, and the NMC lithium battery can store more power and have a longer battery life. It is conceivable that models with a battery life of more than 600km on the market are basically equipped with NMC lithium batteries. Therefore, under the same power, the first advantage of carrying a NMC lithium battery is that it is light in weight and small in size.

    Second, when it comes to electric vehicles, it is necessary to mention the endurance of electric vehicles affected by temperature. As we all know, the lower the temperature, the shorter the range of an electric vehicle. But the ability of the two to release electricity is different. Because the constituent elements of NMC lithium batteries themselves are more active, the lithium ion elements of lithium iron phosphate are more lazy, so the impact of low temperature is not as large as that of lithium iron phosphate batteries, which itself creates low temperature resistance characteristics. According to statistics, at minus 20 degrees, due to the influence of low temperature, the NMC version can release 70% of the electricity stored by itself, while the lithium iron phosphate version can only release 54% of its own electricity. Therefore, the second advantage of NMC lithium batteries is that the discharge capacity is less affected by temperature.

    Third, due to the difference in the activity of the two battery constituent elements, the charging efficiency is different, which is ultimately manifested as the length of the full charge time. Experiments have shown that the charging efficiency of the two batteries is not much different when it is below 10 degrees, and the gap begins to open above 10 degrees, and at 20 degrees, the NMC lithium battery is 5 times the charging efficiency of the lithium iron phosphate battery. Therefore, the third advantage of NMC lithium batteries is that the charging efficiency is fast and the full time is short.

    Everything has two sides, and it is mutually exclusive. The advantages of ternary lithium batteries above are bound to bring some negative things.

    First, the NMC lithium battery theoretically cycles 2000 times, at which time the battery attenuates to 60%; and due to the high resilience and recoverability of lithium iron phosphate batteries, the same number of charges, the battery also attenuates to 80%. Therefore, the first advantage of lithium iron phosphate is not easy to decay.

    Second, because the lithium iron phosphate battery itself is an inert element, it has created its second advantage is safety. I believe that everyone has seen the experimental test of BYD blade battery, with high-strength electric drill to drill through the battery, although the battery is squeezed, high temperature and other limits, the battery still has not exploded and burned, it can be seen that lithium iron phosphate battery is safe. The NMC lithium battery was also tested and burned up.

    Speaking of this, everyone is worried about the NMC lithium battery, worried that their vehicles carrying NMC lithium batteries are not safe, and then clarify with you, many manufacturers also take this into account. This is from two aspects, one, usually charging is worried about spontaneous combustion of vehicles. Therefore, the vehicle is equipped with a battery management system to automatically detect the situation of the vehicle battery, and for the occurrence of overheating caused by the local circuit not passing, the automatic power is cut off to prevent the occurrence of spontaneous combustion. Second, when the vehicle has an accident, it is worried that the battery will be squeezed and other situations will lead to the occurrence of natural conditions. The manufacturer layout battery is placed directly below the chassis of the body, because the rigid structure protection of the body is very safe. In addition, a non-combustible material layer was coated on the outside, which was once again guaranteed.

    Let’s make a simple summary.

    NMC lithium battery advantages: light weight, small size, long endurance, small impact by low temperature, fast charging efficiency. Disadvantages: high cost, low security, high attenuation. Advantages of lithium iron phosphate batteries: safe, low attenuation, low cost. Disadvantages: large size, heavy, short endurance, low temperature impact discharge is larger.

    Different use scenarios and needs, the corresponding choices are different. The south is more suitable for lithium iron phosphate batteries, the north is more suitable for NMC lithium batteries; the short endurance is suitable for lithium iron phosphate, the endurance is suitable for NMC lithium batteries; the low cost is suitable for lithium iron phosphate, and the high cost is suitable for NMC lithium batteries. Give full play to their respective characteristics and advantages, and make the best solution.


    6. The Maintenance Precautions of Lithium ion Battery?

     1) Overview

        Do not leave batteries unused for extended periods of time, either in the product or in storage. When a battery has been unused for 6 months, check the charge status and charge or dispose of the battery as appropriate.

        The typical estimated life of a Lithium-Ion battery is about two to three years or 300 to 500 charge cycles, whichever occurs first. One charge cycle is a period of use from fully charged, to fully discharged, and fully recharged again. Use a two to three year life expectancy for batteries that do not run through complete charge cycles.

        Rechargeable Lithium-Ion batteries have a limited life and will gradually lose their capacity to hold a charge. This loss of capacity (aging) is irreversible. As the battery loses capacity, the length of time it will power the product (run time) decreases.Lithium-Ion batteries continue to slowly discharge (self-discharge) when not in use or while in storage. Routinely check the battery’s charge status.

     2) Battery Maintenance

        A. Observe and note the run time that a new fully-charged battery provides for powering your product. Use this new battery run time as a basis to compare run times for older batteries. The run time of your battery will vary depending on the product’s configuration and the application that you run. 

        B. Routinely check the battery’s charge status, carefully monitor batteries that are approaching the end of their estimated life.

        C. Consider replacing the battery with a new one if you note either of the following conditions:

    The battery run time drops below about 80% of the original run time.

    The battery charge time increases significantly.

        D. If a battery is stored or otherwise unused for an extended period, be sure to follow the storage instructions in this document. If you do not follow the instructions, and the battery has no charge remaining when you check it, consider it to be damaged. Do not attempt to recharge it or to use it. Replace it with a new battery.

     3) Handling Precautions

    Do not disassemble, crush, or puncture a battery.

    Do not short the external contacts on a battery.

    Do not dispose of a battery in fire or water.

    Do not expose a battery to temperatures above 60 °C (140 °F).

    Keep the battery away from children.

    Avoid exposing the battery to excessive shock or vibration.

    Do not use a damaged battery.

    If a battery pack has leaking fluids, do not touch any fluids. Dispose of a leaking battery pack (see Disposal and Recycling in this document).

    In case of eye contact with fluid, do not rub eyes. Immediately flush eyes thoroughly with water for at least 15 minutes, lifting upper and lower lids, until no evidence of the fluid remains. Seek medical attention.


    7. The Maintenance Precautions of LiFePo4(Lithium iron phosphate) Battery?

        From a safety perspective, lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4) batteries are more stable than other types. They can withstand higher temperatures, short circuits, and overcharging without combustion. This is important for any kind of battery. 

        Except the precautions of Lithium ion battery we mentioned above, according to the features of LiFePo4 battery, we need take care of below points.

    1) Stay Out of the Heat

        Batteries operate best in temperatures that are also comfortable for people, around 20°C (68°F). You’ll still have plenty of lithium power at higher temperatures, but once you get past 40°C (104°F), the electrodes may start to degrade.

        The exact temperature differs based on the type of battery. Lithium iron phosphate batteries can operate safely at 60°C (140°F), but even they will suffer problems after that.

        If you’re using a device, such as a phone, with a lithium-ion battery, you won’t have much trouble keeping it out of those high temperatures.

        For a vehicle or renewable energy system, though, it becomes difficult, which is why it’s important to have a battery management system (BMS). The BMS protects the cells from getting damaged --most commonly from over or under-voltage, over-current, high temperature, or external short-circuiting. The BMS will shut off the battery to protect the cells from unsafe operating conditions.

    2) Avoid Sub-Freezing Temperatures

        On the other extreme, operating and charging lithium batteries in cold weather also presents some challenge. 

        Batteries in temperatures below freezing (0°C or 32°F) don’t operate as well. If the temperature gets down to -4°C (-20°F), most batteries are only operating at 50% of their usual performance.

        This is an important safety consideration if you’re driving an electric vehicle in cold temperature since you don’t want to assume you can go your usual range. You’ll need to stop and recharge more often.

        Charging batteries in cold weather, though, can also be problematic. When charging below freezing, plating forms on the anode of a lithium battery, and that plating can’t be removed. If this type of charging is done more than once, the battery will be more likely to fail if it suffers an impact.

        For the best battery maintenance, wait to charge your battery until the temperatures are warm enough to avoid damage. 

    3) Safe Storage

        If you need to store or ship lithium batteries, the biggest concern is avoiding overheating, or what’s called thermal runaways. When this happens, the flammable electrolytes vaporize, and the reaction pressurizes the battery cells. If the case fails, the gases in the cells are released, leading to fire and possible explosion.

        This is less likely with lithium iron phosphate batteries.

        From a storage perspective, overheating is still the main concern. You should discharge the battery to about 50% before long-term storage, and keep it within a comfortable temperature range, between 4°C and 27°C (40°F and 80°F).

        You should also wear protective clothing when handling the batteries, in case they’re damaged. To help keep them stable, make sure they’re stored in a dry, well-ventilated place, and in a way that they won’t be knocked over.


    8. As dangerous products, What is the shipment ways you can choice for Lithium Batteries?

    From fast to slow delivery time, there are 4 channels for Lithium battery shipment:

    1)By UPS or DHL express service to door, the fastest way, need 5-10 days, to door but don’t include Tax and custom fee, customer need pay it himself.

    2)By Air to door, this shipment is not cheap than by express to door service, need 10 days around. but it is DDP service, customer no need pay Tax and custom fee. Above two ways are suitable for sample or urgent orders.

    3)By sea to door or by train to door, this is cheapest door to door service, need 40-45 working days. The cost just 1/3 of UPS or DHL with DDP service.  

    4)By sea to port, customer need arrange clearance and picking up goods for this shipment way, also the cheapest. It is suitable for batch order or full container shipment.

    For shipment way 1) 2) 3), no need any special documents for clearance in China, can ship via HongKong. For shipment way 4), need MSDS, UN38.3 and dangerous goods package certificate to booking container. 

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